Enosburg Falls High School

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Grading and Reporting





Personalized & Proficiency-Based Learning at


(Rev. 8/18/18)

Proficiency Based Learning in FNESU is an evolving body of work.   This document is fluid and is subject to revision throughout our process.

Special thanks to Mike McRaith, principal at Montpelier High School and Mike Martin, curriculum director at South Burlington High School for providing consultation and resources to FNESU in order to help us develop this framework and guide.

            Why Proficiency?

  1. Proficiency-based learning is best practice for student learning.

"Schools use proficiency-based learning to raise academic standards, ensure that more students meet those higher expectations, and graduate more students better prepared for adult life.”

Not only does proficiency-based learning raise the bar for all students, it also improves clarity and equity. Have you ever been in a class and wondered, “What am I supposed to be learning?” Or have you ever been in a class and wondered, “What does the teacher want me to do?” Proficiency-based instruction makes the learning goals and the methods of assessment more explicit than ever. By increasing clarity the learning goals become more accessible to all students. In so doing, we can also create more flexibility for personalized approaches to skills and content, as well as increased flexibility in the pace of learning. We are confident that each of these aspects will contribute to increased equity for access to learning and excellence.

  1. It is required by the state of Vermont.


“While local boards previously have had the authority to base graduation decisions on the demonstration of proficiency, that is now the sole means for determining progress and graduation”.

-VT Education Quality Standard

Graduation Requirements

Traditionally, Enosburg Falls High School students have been required to complete 24 credits in order to graduate. While we continue to require 24 credits for graduation. These credits will now represent more clearly defined indications of proficiency within the specific content areas as detailed in the EFHS Program of Studies. The content areas match the required content areas in the Vermont’s Educational Quality Standards (page 9) and are as follows: English Language Arts and Literacy, Math, Science, Global Citizenship, Visual and Performing Arts, Physical Education, Health, and additional choice credits. For the class of 2022 and beyond, we also are requiring a demonstration of proficiency in transferable skills via the Enosburg Falls High School’s 6 Transferable Skills (TS). The 24 credits and the 6 TS fall within the 8 broad categories of proficiency listed below. Many university admission offices (including Harvard, Tufts and MIT) across the country have made official statements noting that proficiency based high schools are acceptable and receive no advantage or disadvantage in the selection process (click here to read their statements).

Traditional EFHS Graduation Requirements

To graduate from Enosburg Falls High School, each student in the classes of 2019, 2020, 2021 must demonstrate successful completion of:

4 credits or the equivalent of English Language Arts and Literacy

3 credits or equivalent of Math

3 credits or equivalent of Science

3 credits or equivalent of Global Citizenship

1 credit or equivalent of Visual and Performing Arts

1.5 credits or the equivalent of Physical Education

.5 credit or equivalent of Health

8 choice credits

Graduation Requirements for the Class of 2022 and Beyond

Total number of core credits required: 24*

Total number of areas in which to demonstrate proficiency: 8

*(Including demonstration of proficiency within Enosburg Falls High School’s 6 Transferable Skills).

4 credits or the equivalent of English Language Arts and Literacy

3 credits or equivalent of Math

3 credits or equivalent of Science

3 credits or equivalent of Global Citizenship

1 credit or equivalent of Visual and Performing Arts

1.5 credits or the equivalent of Physical Education

.5 credit or equivalent of Health

8 choice credits

Demonstration of Proficiency in the 6 Transferable Skills

English Language Arts and Literacy

  • Requirements: Demonstration of proficiency equivalent to 4 credits of the courses listed within the EFHS Program of Studies and their given content proficiency indicators.


  • Requirements: Demonstration of proficiency equivalent to 3 credits of the courses listed within the EFHS Program of Studies and their given content proficiency indicators.


  • Requirements: Demonstration of proficiency equivalent to 3 credits of the courses listed within the EFHS Program of Studies and their given content proficiency indicators.

Global Citizenship

  • Requirements: Demonstration of proficiency equivalent to 3 credits of the courses listed within the EFHS Program of Studies and their given content proficiency indicators.

Visual and Performing Arts

  • Requirements: Demonstration of proficiency equivalent to 1 credit of the courses listed within the EFHS Program of Studies and their given content proficiency indicators.

Physical Education

  • Requirements: Demonstration of proficiency equivalent to 1.5 credits of the courses listed within the EFHS Program of Studies and their given content proficiency indicators.


  • Requirements: Demonstration of proficiency equivalent to .5 credit of the courses listed within the EFHS Program of Studies and their given content proficiency indicators.

EFHS Transferable Skills

  • Requirements: Demonstration of proficiency within each of the 6 EFHS Transferable Skills (TS): Habits of Learning, Citizenship, Critical Thinking & Problem Solving, Communication, Reading, and Writing. Proficiency will be determined by demonstrating proficiency in the identified TS of a given course and/or by a body of evidence that will be kept within a given student’s personalized learning plan.

Additional Choice Credits

  • Requirements: In order to enhance the learning and increase flexibility, students have the opportunity to select additional areas of learning. In addition to the above selected areas of learning, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency equivalent to any additional 7 choice credits.

Please note: All content proficiency indicators listed within each course are connected to the Vermont’s Educational Quality Standards and content specific learning indicators. Please also note that our proficiency based graduation policy was adopted by the Enosburg Falls Public School Board on May 16, 2017.  (This policy will be revised during the fall of 2019 to reflect the changes we have made to our Proficiency Based Graduation system.)

Assessment, Grading, and Reporting

“[A]s a result of reviewing almost 800 education studies, researcher John Hattie (1992) made the following comment: “The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be ‘dollops of feedback.’” —Marzano, R. J. (2007). Classroom assessment and grading that work. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Purpose of Assessment

There are 3 primary purposes of FNESU’s Assessment Practices:

  1. To provide information on progress of learning to the student for self-evaluation and to

         spur future growth.

  1. To communicate information about a given student’s achievement to their parents and others.

  1. To provide information for career path or educational path programs that may use report cards, transcripts, and/or GPA as a method of selecting students for their respective programs.

Formative Assessment

The most important aspect of formative assessment is that it measures learning in progress. These assessments help both the student and the teacher know what learning a student can demonstrate, and what still needs more practice. Formative assessments may include tests, quizzes, exit tickets, homework, classwork, observations, or discussions, just to name a few. Frequent formative assessment allows for teachers to adjust teaching practices and identify needed academic support for students. Timely feedback to students is essential for developing proficiency. Re-takes, re-dos and multiple chances to practice a given skill or test of skill are encouraged.

Principle: In FNESU, we believe formative assessment should provide frequent feedback, serve as an opportunity to practice key proficiencies and to demonstrate Transferable Skills.


  • Reporting Formative Assessments: Some formative assessment scores will be recorded and reported in the PowerSchool portal for students and parents to access. These scores are only to communicate progress and should not be viewed as the current course grade.


  • How Formative Assessments Inform the Overall Grade: The scores earned on a particular formative assessment (practice) do not count toward the marking period or course score directly. Instead, those scores only provide feedback for the student and family to review in order to gauge progress on the marking periods identified content proficiency and transferable skill indicators.

  • How Do Formative Assessments Contribute to the Habits of Learning-Preparedness Grade? We want students to develop strong habits of learning so each course will have a Habits of Learning-Preparedness grade that will count as 20% of the overall course grade. Teachers will communicate policy around preparedness in their syllabi.


  • Homework: Homework must be given with specific purpose connected to student learning. Teachers will use targeted practice and exploration that can be directly supported by class learning and course resources. Homework shall not be designed as busy work and should account for the fact that many students do not have quality time, space, resources, nor support at home. Homework is one type of formative assessment and may be recorded as part of the Habits of Learning-Preparedness in the manner in which the given teacher has communicated how Habits of Learning-Preparedness will be assessed in their course. For example, timeliness in attendance may be a communicated, emphasized, and taught as the expectation in some courses while other courses may focus more on preparedness for discussion or quizzes.  

  • Zeroes: In the traditional scale of 0-100, a missed assignment scored as “0” results in an unbalanced significant impact on a student’s overall average score. As students and teachers have pointed out, why does an “A” have only 10 points (90-100) while an “F” has 65 (0-65). One way teachers have handled this assessment issue is by putting in a “50” in place of a “0.” When using a standards-based grading scale of 0-4, this mathematical unbalance is corrected. Furthermore, we believe that the “0” in a gradebook has value in that it communicates, “did not do”, “did not complete” more than putting a “1” in the gradebook would communicate. Thus, FNESU has decided to keep the zero, primarily as a tool to communicate missing work.

Summative Assessment

Summative assessments record a student’s proficiency level at specific point in time. Examples of summative assessments include but are not limited to unit projects, tests, essays, presentations and learning exhibitions. “Summative assessments are used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period—typically at the end of a project, unit, course, semester, program, or school year.”

Principles: In FNESU we believe that students should have ample opportunity to practice skills without being penalized. Consequently, summative assessments should serve as the primary measure of student learning while formative assessments provide feedback but do not count against a student’s final grade. Summative assessments are well designed and criterion based, with scoring rubrics provided in advance that connect to a given unit’s proficiency indicator(s). A summative assessment is directly linked to the formative assessments (practice) that students have been improving upon throughout the marking period.


  • Frequency of Summative Assessments (Why 8 Marking Periods?): A Summative will be recorded for each course’s listed content proficiency indicators. Generally, each marking period will have one summative assessment. A year-long course will have 8 marking periods of about 5 weeks each. These marking periods fall upon the previous model of progress reports and quarters. In other words, rather than having 4 quarters with a progress report in each quarter, we have moved to 8 equal marking periods. (A semester-long course will have 4 marking periods). This allows for high-quality unit-design and consistency in quantity and scope of proficiency indicators in the given courses and learning opportunities. Having 8 marking periods also helps to ensure that summative assessments do not get too large, or that a student does not go too long without a significant indication of progress or need for intervention. Parents will be able to check progress in Powerschool at then end of Marking Periods 1,3,5,7 and report cards will be mailed home for Marking Periods 2,4,6,8.


  • Midterms and Final Exams are now Re-assessment Weeks: The midterm and final exam days will function as a second attempt at a summative. For example, if the summative score from marking period 1 did not go well, the student will have a second chance to retake that content proficiency indicator during the former midterm exam time for semester 1. For all summative assessments during semester 2, students will have a chance to retake the content proficiency indicators during the re-assessment week at the end of semester 2. For year-long courses, the semester 1 summative score will be averaged with the semester 2 summative score.

  • Re-assessments: While individual teachers have the final say in their class, and student learning is the fundamental goal, the general practice will be no retakes of summative assessments during the given marking period. Instead, the end of semester re-assessments will provide a student with that second attempt at a summative within the given semester. All students scoring below proficient will need to reassess. Retaking (re-doing) a summative shortly after the initial summative would put it more in-line with the purpose of formative assessment.


Why have reassessments at the end of the semester? Having the reassessments at the end of a semester allows for ongoing growth to be demonstrated over the course of a semester, encourages meaningful skill building over quickly forgotten cramming, and reduces the temptation that students may have to take a summative and marking period less seriously knowing that a retake will follow shortly afterward. The idea of having only 1 or 2 reassessments to do during reassessment week serve as a strong motivator for students to perform well during the first attempt at the summative during the given marking period. One area that poses a logistical challenge and creative planning opportunity is the unavoidable fact that marking periods 4 and 8 are so close in the calendar to their respective retake days.

  • Reporting Summative Assessments: Summative assessment scores will be recorded on the Marzano 1-4 scale (zero for a missed summative). This scale is the most commonly used form of proficiency-based reporting. In order to more fairly reflect student learning and the related impact on grade point average, FNESU has chosen to utilize the scores of 2.5 and 3.5 in addition to 1-4.

  • How Summative Assessments Contribute to the Overall Grade: Summative scores for content proficiency indicators will not be averaged across marking periods. Instead, the highest score achieved on a summative assessment within a given content proficiency indicator will be the score given to that proficiency indicator for the course. Because each marking period has one content proficiency indicator, there are really only two possible chances at the summative: 1) the initial summative, 2) the reassessment. We will take the higher of the two and exempt the other. This is called “high mark” scoring. When the course concludes, the highest achieved summative scores from each content proficiency indicator will be averaged equally, with the course’s identified transferable skills indicators' scores to make up 80% (64% content proficiency indicators, 16% TSs) of the total grade. The remaining 20% of the course grade is determined by the Habits of Learning-Preparedness score.

Determining a Course's Overall Grade


Content proficiency indicators averaged contribute:    

   64%      (3.13)

TS indicator scores averaged contribute:         16%        (3.20)    

Preparedness scores averaged contribute:          +   20%         (3.49)   

                                        = Total Score of 3.21

Note: The above visual is taken from an example at Montpelier High School.  The LE in the example represents Transferable Skills (TS) in the FNESU model. Also, “content specific indicator” is the equivalent of FNESU’s “content proficiency indicator”.  

How Was This Grade Determined?

The total grade in this course is 3.21 which converts to a B on the FNESU Conversion Chart. Each content proficiency indicator has one summative assessment during a marking period and one option to re-assess at midterm or final. The highest score achieved on the content proficiency indicator is recorded in the “year” column. Those scores are averaged with the course-selected Transferable Skills (TS) indicators to determine 80% of the overall grade. The Habits of Learning-Preparedness score determines the final 20% of the overall grade.

Why Do the Course-Selected Transferable Skill Indicators and the Habits of Learning-Preparedness Indicators Use an Average?

The course-selected transferable skills are determined by an average, because they appear across a majority of the class and we are working to foster growth over the course of the year. These scores can be more fairly averaged, because they have multiple entries while the content specific indicators have a maximum of only two entries.

Why are the Course-Selected Transferable Skill Indicators Combined with the Content Proficiency Indicators in the Final Average?  

By including the course’s targeted and assessed TS’s in the course grade, it validates their importance as the transferable skills and enduring understandings that all of our learning should be built around. We will continue to use a Backwards Design model in developing units of instruction built on research by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe.  Additionally, the TS scores earned in class will serve as powerful evidence in a student’s overall body of evidence needed to demonstrate proficiency in the TS’s for graduation (class of 2022 and beyond).

Why is the Habits of Learning-Preparedness Score Reported Separately and Worth 20% of the Total Grade?

Reporting Habits of Learning separately from the content- and course-specific skills is a crucial component of proficiency-based learning. In doing so, it allows formative assessment to be truly formative, while also retaining accountability for the important process criteria in preparedness. Skills such as timely work completion, effort, and punctuality can be taught and assessed here with more clarity than the traditional one score report cards. By “locking” the score at 20% for all courses we increase consistency and fairness across the school-wide assessment system.

How Do We Determine If A Child With A Disability And An Individual Education Plan (IEP) Or A 504 Plan Needs An Accommodation Or Modification In Order To Demonstrate Proficiency Of A Content Proficiency Indicator Or Transferable Skill?

The child’s IEP or 504 team must use the following model in order to determine whether or not the child will or will not require accommodations or modifications in order to meet the Proficiency Based Graduation requirements.  (see below)

Five-Step Inclusive Grading Model

What If Some Students Need Additional Time And Support?  

In FNESU we believe proficiency-based learning is best practice for student learning. The Academic Time (AT) block at EFHS is intended to help students meet academic learning goals. In so doing, we can also create more flexibility for personalized approaches to skills and content, as well as increased flexibility in the pace of learning. We are confident that each of these aspects will contribute to increased equity for access to learning and excellence.

This 42-minute AT block will allow all teachers and all students to be available at the same time. The goal is to provide additional support on challenging topics, provide time to connect on missed work, offer small groups additional instruction on a common topic, increase the time dedicated to personalized learning plans, and have a built-in time for assemblies and whole school screenings, e.g., literacy or social emotional learning skills screenings.

How Will Eligibility be Determined for Co-Curricular Activities?   

Given that grades are based on the summative learning of each unit, there are only content proficiency specific scores recorded every 5 weeks or so. This makes our old method of determining eligibility impractical. Thus the following procedure applies for all co-curriculars, including but not limited to student athletes: The athletic director will check grades every two weeks for all in-season student athletes. An average grade of lower than 2.5 in any given course within the preparedness category will result in a documented warning. The warning will be communicated to the student, parents/guardians, coach, and given teacher. The following grade reported in preparedness (within two weeks) in the given course will be the determiner for eligibility intervention (one game suspension), or demonstrated improvement. Continual low scores in preparedness after an initial one game suspension will result in additional game suspensions.

Why do we need a Conversion Chart that includes a Traditional GPA?

Growth mindset and the idea of developing talent rather than sorting talent are at the heart of proficiency based learning.  As we transition in our school, state, and country, we decided that the conversion charts would provide useful bridges of communication and trust-building. The use of 1-4 versus Beginning / Developing / Proficient and Exemplary and the traditional  A-F can be seen as arbitrary. The instruction and learning that those symbols represents is the important part.  

The traditional GPA also serves as a bridge. In the traditional system a 93% in a course earned 4.0 points on the GPA scale. Our current system also allows for less than perfection to contribute the traditional 4.0 points with the 3.6 proficiency score and up earning 4.0 GPA points (see Conversion Chart). This helps focus the course on learning with less quibbling over the minutiae of a “perfect score” which may remain overvalued by many students as we work to provide more nuanced reporting of learning and a more growth oriented mindset in our students.

Academic Honors in FNESU

High Schools in FNESU offer academic honors to those students who have achieved academic excellence during their high school learning experience. The following details will apply to the class of 2021 and following cohorts.

Grade Point Average

Grade Point Average (GPA) will be calculated for each student, each semester. Beginning at the end of their 9th grade year, students will have an overall cumulative GPA as well. The cumulative GPA will be calculated at the conclusion of each completed semester thereafter. The grade point average will use the Franklin Northeast Supervisory Union traditional GPA points, as illustrated in our FNESU Proficiency Conversion Chart with GPA. Raw proficiency averages from each course will determine a traditional letter grade, and that traditional letter grade will determine the GPA points earned. The traditional cumulative GPA will determine the academic honor status.

Semester Academic Honors:


3.90 and higher → Highest Honors

3.67 and higher → High Honors

3.50 and higher → Honors

Graduation Academic Honors:


3.90 and higher → Summa Cum Laude

3.67 and higher → Magna Cum Laude

3.50 and higher → Cum Laude

Class Rank

Starting with the class of 2021, high schools in FNESU will no longer report class rank. There are several student disadvantages to reporting class rank, including but not limited to, the fractional differences between excellent students, the potential for students to self select into less challenging courses, and undue increases in student anxiety. Along with most elite private high schools, over half of the high schools in the United States, and Vermont’s largest high schools, Richford Junior Senior High School and Enosburg Falls High School will no longer rank students.

To read more: CollegeBoard on Class Rank & The Great Schools Partnership on Class Rank.


In some unique cases where an award, Highest Honors scholarship, or special circumstance requires the reporting of rank, the principal may (with the student with High Honors permission) confidentially report this statistic to an outside agency. Request for such an exception must be made to the high school principal.

Proficiency Scoring Key








Exceeds proficiency: The students work demonstrates excellent achievement of the proficiency indicator; shows in-depth understanding of the skills, grasps, applies and extends key concepts. The work may not be perfect

Meets proficiency: The student demonstrates progress towards exceeding the proficiency.   

Meets proficiency: The student demonstrates solid proficient achievement of the proficiency indicator. Shows good understanding of the skills and concepts.

Partially meets proficiency: The student demonstrates progress towards meeting the proficiency.

Does not meet proficiency: The student has shown a substantive attempt to meet the proficiency but has not met it at this time.

Insufficient evidence: The student does not demonstrate learning of the proficiency indicator.

Insufficient evidence: The student did not attempt the assessment.

FNESU Proficiency Conversion Chart with Traditional GPA

Assessing and Reporting the FNESU Transferable Skills (TSs)

Links to Each of the 6 FNESU Transferable Skills and their Corresponding Scoring Guides:

Habits of Learning, Citizenship, Critical Thinking & Problem Solving, Communication, Reading, Writing

Graduation Requirement:

Beginning with the class of 2022, students must demonstrate proficiency within FNESU’s Transferable Skills (TSs) in order to graduate.

How Will Proficiency in the TSs Be Assessed?

Students will build a body of evidence within each TS to demonstrate proficiency. Proficiency will be assessed in two ways:

  1. Within Courses: Each FNESU course offering has identified TS indicators of concentration. A score of 3 or better in that course-identified TS indicator is clear evidence of proficiency within the given indicator. For example, if Biology has identified TS indicator W6.4 (writing analysis), and the student achieves a 3 or better they have verified that TS indicator. Independent Study Courses and Extended Learning Opportunities (ELOs) may allow students the option of identifying a TS indicator which they would like to be assessed for proficiency.

  1. By Submitting to Faculty TS Groups: Students are encouraged to identify evidence of learning outside of their course offerings. Whether it be on the Scholars Bowl Team, basketball, working at a local nursing home, or volunteering in the school or community, learning happens across all settings for students. Students will be granted the opportunity to submit evidence for consideration in marking periods 1-6 of each year. The evidence will be reviewed and assessed by a community of faculty dedicated to each Transferable Skill.

How Will Proficiency in the TSs Be Reported?

  1. Within Courses: As mentioned above, each course has identified TS indicators that will be reported upon and recorded in PowerSchool and on student report cards. This course-based reporting can be used as evidence of specific indicator proficiency.

  1. Personalized Learning Plans: As students build a body of evidence to demonstrate their proficiency in the TSs, they may choose to house their evidence within their digital Personalized Learning Plan (PLP). Students can keep a digital folder within their Google Drive for each TS. As they collect learning experiences, they can document evidence of learning within their folders. The actual documentation can (should) utilize multi-modes of communication including but not limited to: pictures of learning, video evidence of learning, slideshows, original pieces of art, summaries of experiences, letters of recommendation, certifications, licenses, learning from conferences, learning from extra-curricular groups, etc. The better students, families and teachers know the TSs and their corresponding verification scoring guides, the more often everyone will be able to recognize learning in the given transferable skills and capitalize on extended learning opportunities (ELOs).

  1. Personal Learning Plan Reviews (PLP Review) EFHS PLP Reviews will provide a yearly opportunity to gauge progress toward proficiency in the Transferable Skills. All students, (starting with the class of 2022) will need to have at least one original assessed piece of evidence for each TS indicator. Teacher advisors will help support students in tracking this progress and will verify to guidance and administration when proficiency in all indicators has been demonstrated. The following checklist can be used as a tool to help organize the verification progress.

Checklist of TS Evidence

Habits of Learning

⃞ Collaboration

⃞ Self-direction

⃞ Preparedness


⃞ Makes a Difference

⃞ Responsibility

⃞ Respect Others

⃞ Digital Citizenship

Critical Thinking & Problem Solving

⃞ Identify Problems

⃞ Generate Solutions

⃞ Analyze Information

⃞ Synthesize Information

⃞ Apply Knowledge

⃞ Use Technology Capably


⃞ Purpose

⃞ Listen

⃞ Ask Questions

⃞ Participate in Discussions


⃞ Habits and Dispositions

⃞ Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

⃞ Initial Understanding

⃞ Analysis and Interpretation


⃞ Purpose

⃞ Organization

⃞ Evidence

⃞ Analysis

⃞ Voice & Tone

⃞ Conventions


Courses Completed        Score        Letter Grade        Proficiency Earned


Algebra 1                3.14         B-            1.0 Mathematics   

Band                4.00         A+            0.5 Visual and Performing Arts   

Art I                3.45        B+            0.5 Visual and Performing Arts    

Principles of Social Studies        3.61        A-            1.0 Global Citizenship   

English 9                3.54        B+            1.0 English Language Arts       

Integrated Science            3.00        B-            1.0 Science           

Health                4.00        A+            0.5 Health Education   

Spanish 1                3.12        B-            1.0 Elective   

PE 1                3.33        B            1.0 Physical Education   


Geometry                3.00        B-            1.0 Mathematics

Biology                3.56        A-            1.0 Science

World History            3.03        B-            1.0 Global Citizenship   

English Seminar            3.55        A-            1.0 English Language Arts

Spanish 2                3.10        B-            1.0 Elective

Economics            4.00        A+                0.5 Global Citizenship

Community Based Learning        P        P            1.0 Elective


Chemistry Honors            3.17        B            1.0 Science

Algebra II Honors            3.00        B-            1.0 Mathematics

College Prep U.S. History        3.24        B            1.0 Global Citizenship

American Literature            3.43        B            1.0 English

Art II                3.05        B            1.0 Visual and Performing Arts

Spanish 3                2.82        C+            1.0 Elective

Summer 2021

University of VT: English 101        3.00        B-            1.0 English


AP Biology            3.00        B            1.0 Science

AP English            3.57        A-            1.0 English

Precalculus            2.51        C            1.0 Mathematics

U.S. History 2            3.45        B+            1.0 Global Citizenship

Intro to Computer Science        2.17        D            1.0 Elective               

Spanish 4                3.00        B-            1.0 Elective       


Student Name: Barry Proficient

DOB: 2/19/03

Graduation Date: 6/14/22

Proficiency Demonstrated in Transferable Skills   

Habits of Learning            Communication

Citizenship            Reading

Critical Thinking & Problem Solving    Writing

Total Proficiency Credits         Needed        Earned

English Language Arts        4.0        5.0

Mathematics            3.0        4.0

Science                3.0        4.0

Global Citizenship            3.0        4.5

Physical Education            1.5        1.5   

Visual and Performing Arts        1.0        2.0

Health                .5        .5

Elective Credits            7.0        7.0


Total                23        26.5


School Profile

One of the most important documents for schools to develop is their school profile. The school profile is made up of basic data, a snapshot of the school’s assessment system, and provides an executive summary of the expectations and climate of the school. FNESU is developing new school profiles during the 2018-2019 school year to clearly explain our shift to proficiency and all of the expectations that go along with that shift (annually updated). Look for a link to the school profile for EFHS coming in 2018-2019.

Flexible Pathways at Enosburg Falls High School


Flexible Pathways

Flexible pathways is an encompassing term for opportunities that allow expanded voice and choice in one’s education. Enosburg Falls High School (EFHS) is proud to offer flexible pathways to all learners. When learners pursue experiences outside of our course listings, they consult with their school counselor for a discussion of options, prior approval and appropriate next steps.  The costs associated with flexible pathways experiences vary, are evaluated on a case-by-case basis, and are provided to learners as funding allows.

Flexible Pathways for Learners with Disabilities

While flexible pathways are available to all learners, placement decisions for a learner with disabilities are determined by the IEP/504 team. The IEP/504 team decides whether or not the flexible pathways learning opportunity is an appropriate educational setting. When the IEP/504 team decides that a flexible pathways learning experience is appropriate, the case manager, the learner, and the appropriate faculty advisor(s) collaborate throughout the experience.

Assessment and Reporting

Assessment of all flexible pathways learning experiences is based on local, state, and national proficiency indicators. Assessment for individual pathways is articulated in the relevant sections of this handbook. All flexible pathways become part of the learner's EFHS transcript, and in the case of higher education through VT’s Dual Enrollment/Early College programs, college transcript.

Flexible Pathways Options at EFHS

Online Learning

Learners have the opportunity to pursue coursework virtually; in some cases, a course is a blended-learning experience, involving both virtual and classroom-setting components. Historically at EFHS, learners have worked with various institutions, including the Vermont Virtual Learning Cooperative (VTVLC).  In addition to taking an individual online course, VTVLC and Enosburg Falls High School are working together to offer the option of attaining your high school diploma completely online through the Collaborative Diploma Program (CDP). Because the online environment is a highly independent endeavor, learners who are most successful have the following skills and dispositions, aligned with:

  • Self-Direction
  • Preparedness
  • Digital Citizenship


As with all flexible pathways options, learners must seek prior approval from their school counselor before enrolling in an online course. Providers have policies that must be reviewed and followed. Most learners who enroll in online courses are assigned a flexible pathways block during which they work with support from the flexible pathways advisor. Support can be answering questions, assisting with problem solving, providing supplemental resources, assisting with technology needs/glitches, etc. Some learners’ schedules have no open blocks, which means their online coursework falls exclusively outside the school hours. Every online course requires daily attention and work completion, including homework time, even with a flexible pathways block in the schedule.

The amount of oversight for online learning varies from learner to learner. Initially, there is frequent communication with the learner, electronically and in person, for course selection, enrollment, questions, and support. As the course unfolds, a gradual increase in autonomy occurs. The flexible pathways advisor has the ability to monitor learners’ progress at any time with electronic oversight, as well as by communicating with providers’ contact staff.  An online learner’s approach and progress drives the flexible pathways advisor’s degree of involvement.


Assessment practices vary for online courses, depending upon the provider. Once a learner is enrolled in a course with a particular institution, the flexible pathways advisor reviews with the learner the institution’s assessment practices and course policies.  


Online course titles and grades (regardless of academic outcomes) are put on transcripts upon course completion; this is done by the flexible pathways advisor and guidance department.  Necessary EFHS grade conversions are made and transcripts updated at the close of each semester.

At this time, there are no LEs attached to online courses, however, it is conceivable to use an online course for Extended Learning Opportunities (ELOs).

Extended Learning Opportunity (ELOs)

Extended Learning Opportunities (ELOs) are designed to provide all students with a non-traditional educational experience that is both interest-based and rigorous. They are planned in order to allow students to explore educational opportunities that are personally relevant to them, while also addressing appropriate skills for life during and after school.

ELOs are primarily designed by the student around their personal passions. This increases the student’s interest and investment in the learning. This personal interest is directly tied to a specific set of Proficiency Based Graduation Requirements so that the student earns credit towards high school graduation while pursuing their passion. Benefits of an ELO include credit toward graduation, enhanced resume, exploration of career options, specific workplace skills, increased motivation, and self-confidence.

ELOs are intentionally designed to be a challenge. “Credit” is only awarded when a student shows mastery of Proficiencies linked to student interest, which meet the expectations of the Cooperating Teacher, Community Mentor, and ELO Coordinator. All ELOs, no matter the content area, also address four Transferable Skills Proficiencies in Self- Direction, Communication, Collaboration, and Citizenship. A strong work ethic and time management skills are needed in order to successfully complete an ELO.

ELOs also give students opportunities to develop educational relationships with a support system of experts who want them to succeed, including a community member/mentor, a cooperating teacher, and the ELO Coordinator. For more information, see the ELO website.


The student is at the center of every ELO. They initiate an ELO idea and, with the assistance of the ELO Coordinator and Cooperating Teacher(s), direct the development of their ELO plan which includes the indicators they wish to prove proficiency in, and the learning activities they intend to complete as evidence of their skill.

The student takes part in finding a Community Mentor that best suits their ELO needs and is responsible for acquiring the necessary signatures on the ELO application. During an ELO, the student must exhibit professional behaviors and is expected to adhere to rules, procedures, and policies of both school and workplace.

In addition to active learning while on site, students are expected to maintain a thorough reflection journal and share its contents with all members of their ELO Team. Students are also required to check in Bi-Weekly with the ELO Coordinator and keep their evidence up to date. Students are required to complete the work outlined in their ELO plans, and any work assigned by the Community Mentor. If possible, this includes a product designed to be beneficial to the Community Mentor and/or the community location. At the conclusion of the ELO, students complete an exit evaluation and then share their learning in a panel presentation where they are assessed by an ELO evaluation team. This team includes the Extended Learning Opportunity Coordinator, Cooperating Teacher(s), Special Education Case Manager (if applicable), and any other individuals who are key to the student’s ELO success.


ELO Learners are assessed both formatively and summatively. Formative feedback will be given as students complete work in their ELO and will be given orally, or in writing by the cooperating teacher, ELO coordinator or Community Mentor. ELO student's HOL 1.3 score will be evaluated on a bi-weekly basis by the ELO COordinator via bi-weekly check-in sessions during AT.  However, due to the flexible nature of ELOs the summative scores, and the Preparedness score will not be entered into PowerSchool until the ELO is completed. While an ELO can begin and end at any time during the school year, the PowerSchool scores will be entered at the semester and year mark. The HOL 1.3 score will be entered by the ELO Coordinator, the content summative scores will be entered by the Cooperating Teacher.


In the ELO course proposal, learners choose to pursue either content proficiencies and transferable skills, or transferable skills only. Those who wish to acquire content credit must choose at least 4 content proficiencies for every .5 credit in the subject area they want credit. Students may choose to pursue .5 credit in more than one subject area, by selecting 4 content proficiencies in each subject. This will be scored on a proficiency scale of 0-4. Those who only choose only transferable skills proficiencies will receive an elective credit as a Proficient/Not Proficient (P/NP) grade. The P/NP grade does not affect grade point average (GPA). The proficiency score does.

Introduction to College and Careers

Introduction to College and Careers (ICC) is a free course designed to help learners develop strategies for college success. ICC classes are offered at all 12 Community College of Vermont (CCV) locations. An ICC course does not count as a Dual Enrollment course; this means a voucher is not required to enroll.  (Dual Enrollment and vouchers are explained in the next section of the handbook.)


As with all flexible pathways options, enrollment in ICC begins with a meeting with one’s school counselor for discussion and approval. A Vermont high school sophomore, junior, or senior can take Introduction to College and Careers (ICC).


Assessment practices depend on the given instructor at CCV. A course grade is aligned with the EFHS Conversion Chart and is recorded as an elective credit at the close of the semester.


Students who complete ICC will earn .5 credit on their high school transcript. Students can pursue an ELO for TS indicators as desired.

Additional Resources

Dual Enrollment

Vermont’s Dual Enrollment program allows high school learners to take courses at any one of 19 Vermont colleges and universities while still in high school. Participating learners challenge themselves through college-level curriculum and earn up to eight college credits, potentially reducing the time and costs required for earning a college degree. Vermont high school learners are eligible for two Dual Enrollment vouchers, each good for one course tuition free. Learners may request their vouchers in their junior and/or senior years of school, including the summers before junior year and senior year.


As with all flexible pathways options, dual enrollment begins with a meeting with one’s school counselor for discussion and approval. Only courses connected to the learner’s PLP are approved. The next step is to complete an online Vermont Dual Enrollment Voucher Request. The learner then meets with the flexible pathways advisor to complete the college application and registration process (the voucher number is required for this step). If the course is a Community College of Vermont course, math and literacy Accuplacer tests are required to determine appropriate placement. The guidance counselor can help facilitate this step.

Implications for Students with Disabilities


Assessment practices vary for each course and each institution. Once a learner is enrolled in a course with a particular institution, the guidance counselor reviews with the learner the institution’s assessment practices and course policies. A course grade is aligned with the EFHS Conversion Chart and the relevant content area (e.g., English Language Arts & Literacy) as determined by the flexible pathways advisor, school counselor, and administration (if needed).  


The college sends EFHS a transcript. Depending upon which college, sometimes the learner has to request it be sent to EFHS from the college’s registrar's office. EFHS’s guidance department adds the course name and grade to the learner's EFHS transcript. The grade earned in a college course is averaged into one’s high school GPA. Dual Enrollment grades are reflected on both the learner’s permanent high school and college transcripts.  

Additional Resources

Early College

Vermont's Early College Program is a full-year alternative to one’s senior year of high school. Learners take courses in college, completing their senior year of high school credits and their freshman year of college credits simultaneously tuition-free. Some Early College programs also include on-campus housing, however, only the cost of tuition is paid for by the state of Vermont; learners and families are responsible for the cost of housing, if applicable, transportation, textbooks, and meals. Early College on-campus programs are available at Community College of Vermont, Castleton University, Johnson State College, Lyndon State College (soon to be Northern VT University), Goddard College, and Norwich University. Vermont Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) at Vermont Technology College (VTC) is also affiliated with the Early College program.

When participating in VT’s Early College program, learners are welcome to continue at the same college or to work with their EFHS school counselor to apply to another college. In most cases, credits transfer to the learner’s next college, especially if that college is within the Vermont State College system. In cases where there is a specific plan, such as Early College at VTC then transferring to UVM, the learner should consult with the schools involved for clarification regarding the transfer process.


As with all flexible pathways options, participation in the Early College program begins with a meeting with one’s guidance counselor for discussion and approval. Participating in Early College is an excellent opportunity to both earn college credits at a minimal cost and to greatly broaden the available options for study. It is also a significant commitment, and the decision should be made carefully. If admitted, the learner enrolls full time in challenging college-level courses. Classes meet 12-15 hours per week. Additionally, learners can expect to complete 30-40 hours of coursework outside of the classroom (homework, studying, papers, readings, projects, etc.). Early College learners must possess strong time-management skills, and be independently motivated learners. Courses are selected with the help of an academic advisor at the college, but usually include introductory courses (prerequisites) that provide easily transferable credits.

Early College learners continue to receive all communication pertaining to their graduating class. They are encouraged to participate in the EFHS graduation ceremony and will receive a Enosburg Falls High School diploma. Learners are also welcome to play sports, as well as to participate in any extracurricular activities of interest at EFHS while attending Early College.


Assessment practices vary for each course and each institution. Course grades are aligned with the EFHS Conversion Chart, and the relevant content area (e.g., English Language Arts & Literacy) is determined by the flexible pathways advisor, school counselor, and administration (if needed).  


The grades earned are recorded on both the learner’s permanent high school and college transcripts.

Additional Resources

Cold Hollow Career Center


As with all flexible pathways options, learners should meet with their guidance counselor to express interest. Students should seek out opportunities to visit and shadow the programs offered at CHCC.  Each of the 7 programs (Auto, Business, Construction, Digital Media, Div Ag, Forestry and Natural Resources, and Medical Careers) offer college credit, Industry Recognized Credentials, and excellent Work based learning opportunities.   Students typically attend the CHCC their junior and/or senior year.

Implications for learners with disabilities


Each program includes at least one embedded credit towards a learners graduation requirement as well as elective or choice credits.  (please see program of studies)

Additional Resources

Vermont Adult Learning

Vermont Adult Learning (VAL), located at 5 Lemnah Drive

St. Albans, VT 05478, is EFHS’s local partner in providing basic education. VAL’s mission is to provide adults 16 years and older with necessary skills to successfully transition to employment and post-secondary education. VAL offers: Basic Skills Education; High School Completion Program; GED Preparation and Testing; English Language Learner (ELL) Classes; WorkKeys Certificate; Work Readiness; College Transitions. Learners interested in exploring VAL’s services as a flexible pathways option should discuss participation, assessment, and proficiency/credit details with their school counselor.

FNESU Transferable Skills & Verification Guides


TS 1 - Habits of Learning (HOL): An FNESU graduate demonstrates the skills of a successful learner.

Criterion / Performance Indicator

1 - Beginning

2 - Developing

3 - Proficient

4 - Exemplary

HOL 1.1 Collaboration

  • I can describe effective and respectful group interaction.
  • I can be respectful to others.
  • I can follow established expectations to work toward team goals.
  • I can identify strengths and perspectives of group members.
  • I can recognize when our group is struggling and offer suggestions.
  • I can help create expectations to ensure effective teaming.
  • I can make use of the  diverse strengths and perspectives of group members.
  • I can help the team respectfully solve problems and conflicts.
  • I can ask probing questions and elicit ideas in order to improve outcomes.

HOL 1.2 Self-direction

  • I can identify my strengths, weaknesses, interests, and needs to inform goal setting.  

  • I can set and work toward goals with assistance.

  • I can use a variety of resources to inform the goal-setting process.

  • I can explain setbacks and challenges I encountered while working toward goals.

  • I can set goals to stretch and challenge myself.

  • I can identify action steps related to each goal and document progress for my action steps.

  • I can take appropriate risks by getting out of my comfort zone.

  • I can overcome setbacks and challenges in order to accomplish my goals.

  • I can reflect on my progress and plan next steps.
  • I can explain how different sources of information affected my goals and decisions.

  • I can apply my learning and adapt to challenges as I work toward new goals.

  • I can use failures as opportunities for learning and growth.

Criterion / Performance Indicator

1 - Beginning

2 - Developing

3 - Proficient

4 - Exemplary

HOL 1.3 Preparedness

  • I can arrive on time, follow class expectations, and engage in learning tasks.
  • I can recognize when I am stuck.
  • I can meet most deadlines.
  • I can contribute to a productive working environment.
  • I can ask for help when needed.
  • I can manage resources or time effectively to make progress on assignments or tasks.
  • I can create and follow a plan to complete large assignments or tasks on time.
  • I can respectfully advocate for specific modifications to meet my learning needs.
  • When I am absent, I can find out what I missed and make it up.
  • I can take initiative for higher level opportunities when initial tasks are completed.
  • I can maximize my learning rather than simply meeting requirements.
  • I can use, evaluate, and refine a system to organize and track my assignments or tasks.
  • I can consistently submit work that is professional and represents my best effort.


TS 2 - Citizenship (CIT): An FNESU graduate contributes to their school and community.

Criterion / Performance Indicator

1 - Beginning

2 - Developing

3 - Proficient

4 - Exemplary

CIT 2.1 - Make a difference in my community

  • I can attend school activities.
  • I can participate in school activities.
  • I can contribute my time or ideas to school or community activities that benefit others.
  • I can organize or lead school or community activities that benefit others.

CIT 2.2 - Take responsibility for personal decisions and actions.

  • I can acknowledge my actions.
  • I can describe alternatives to choices I make.
  • I can describe the effects of my words and actions.
  • I can describe the outcome of my decisions or actions and take steps to improve or rectify the situation.
  • I can be proactive about my decisions and actions based on past experiences.

CIT 2.3 - Respect diversity and differing points of view.

  • I can describe ways in which people are different.
  • I can acknowledge diversity and identify different points of view.
  • I can be respectful of people who are different from me.
  • I can be respectful of people who express ideas I don’t agree with.
  • I can stand up for others when I witness harm being done.
  • I can consider and evaluate ideas I don’t agree with.

CIT 2.4 - Practice responsible digital citizenship.

  • I can define what an online presence is.
  • I can explain the implications of an online presence.
  • I can take responsibility for my online presence and its implications.
  • I can intentionally create a positive online representation of myself.


TS 3 - Critical Thinking and Problem Solving (CTPS): An FNESU graduate applies a variety of problem solving and critical thinking strategies across a wide range of settings.

Critical Thinking: Conduct research, consider information carefully, and use reason to apply knowledge.

Problem Solving: Apply a variety of strategies to solve problems

Criterion / Performance Indicator

1 - Beginning

2 - Developing

3 - Proficient

4 - Exemplary

CTPS 3.1 - Identify and define problems

  • I can make observations about a problem situation.

  • I can state the problem to be solved.
  • I can identify variables that influence the problem situation.
  • I can explain the problem to be solved.
  • I can identify the  constraints and criteria for success.
  • I can identify and explain complex problems.
  • I can break down complex problems into simpler parts.
  • I can explain the relevance of the  specified problem.

CTPS 3.2 -  Generate solutions

  • I can generate one possible solution for a problem.
  • I can generate different possible solutions for a problem.
  • I can identify strengths and weaknesses of possible solutions.
  • I can evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each each possible solution.
  • I can choose the best solution justified by the available evidence.
  • I can propose my solution(s) to an authentic audience.
  • I can test my solution(s) for viability.

CTPS 3.3 - Analyze and evaluate the accuracy, bias, and relevance of information

  • I can identify the creator of a source.
  • I can find information that goes with my topic.
  • I can uncover information about the creator of a source.
  • I can explain the reasons for and process of fact-checking.
  • I can identify bias in a source.
  • I can explain the importance of using relevant sources.
  • I can evaluate a source’s authority by analyzing the creator’s credibility, including their background and use of reasoning and evidence.
  • I can determine the accuracy of information through methods such as fact-checking or corroboration.
  • I can take bias into consideration when analyzing and evaluating information.
  • I can analyze the relevance of a  source by assessing its strengths and limitations for a particular purpose.
  • I can select and apply information gathered from varied sources to best meet my purpose.
  • I can justify the use of information I select.

CTPS 3.4 - Synthesize information from multiple sources to build knowledge

  • I can find information on a topic.
  • I can find information on a specific topic from multiple sources.
  • I can use information from multiple and varied sources to increase my knowledge of a topic.
  • I can credit sources without plagiarizing.
  • I can identify potential knowledge gaps or missing perspectives.
  • I can seek out additional sources to fill in gaps in information or perspective.

CTPS 3.5 - Apply knowledge

  • I can define and give examples of what it means to “transfer knowledge.”
  • I can recognize that knowledge is transferable.
  • I can make connections between contexts, disciplines, or situations.
  • I can use what I have previously learned in new situations or contexts.
  • I can apply my knowledge from multiple contexts to create new meaning or connections.

CTPS 3.6 - Use technology strategically and capably

  • I can use technology.
  • I can identify technology tools to use for a specific purpose.
  • I can evaluate technology and select the best available tool for my specific purpose.
  • I can create technology that meets my specific purpose better than previously existing tools.


TS 4 - Communication (COM): An FNESU graduate is an effective communicator and listener.

Communication: Communicate effectively for a variety of audiences and purposes.

Criterion / Performance Indicator

1 - Beginning

2 - Developing

3 - Proficient

4 - Exemplary

COM 4.1 - Consider the audience and purpose when communicating

  • I can identify the audience and purpose.
  • I can demonstrate awareness of the need to adjust for audience and purpose.
  • I can plan or adjust organization, content, and language to meet my purpose and the needs of my audience.
  • I can analyze the needs, biases, and level of knowledge of my audience to strategically plan and deliver impactful communication.

COM 4.2 - Listen to build understanding

  • I can focus my attention on the speaker.
  • I can gather information from what I hear.
  • I can restate information gathered from listening.
  • I can listen in order to gather information for a specified purpose.
  • I can listen for points of agreement, disagreement, and potential questions.
  • I can integrate new information gathered from listening with what I already know to reach a new level of understanding.

COM 4.3 - Ask questions and provide feedback

  • I can ask questions.
  • I can make comments about what I hear.
  • I can ask questions that deepen my understanding.
  • I can make specific comments about what I hear.
  • I can ask questions that provoke thought or advance communication.
  • I can provide respectful, relevant feedback that promotes growth.
  • I can facilitate a thoughtful exchange of ideas based on questions and feedback.
  • Or    -
  • I can explain how questions I asked and feedback I provided resulted in new insight for myself or others.

COM 4.4 - Participate effectively in discussions

  • I can listen to what others say.
  • I can state my own opinion.
  • I can respectfully respond to the ideas of others.
  • I can use evidence to support my opinions.
  • I can ask questions or make comments to further the conversation.
  • I can respectfully disagree with the ideas of others.
  • I can synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on multiple sides of an issue.
  • I can respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives.


TS 5 - Reading (R): An FNESU graduate comprehends, interprets, and analyzes a wide range of written material.

Criterion / Performance Indicator

1 - Beginning

2 - Developing

3 - Proficient

4 - Exemplary

R 5.1 - Habits and Dispositions

  • I am aware of reading strategies
  • I can use reading strategies and can match strategies to different types of texts
  • I can use a variety of reading strategies to make meaning of a wide range of texts
  • I can make meaning of challenging text by drawing on a variety of reading strategies and comprehension tools

R 5.2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

  • I can list unfamiliar words in a text
  • I can use strategies to identify and define unfamiliar words in a text
  • I can use a variety of strategies to identify, define, and extends the meaning of unfamiliar words in a particular context such as word recognition, context, reference tools, and word analysis to determine the connotations and denotations of words.
  • I can understand words with figurative language, technical terms, and words or phrases with multiple meanings
  • I can make meaning by identifying the nuances of words used in a particular context for specific purposes.
  • I can use a variety of tools and strategies to make meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases to determine the connotations and denotations of words.
  • I can understand words with figurative language, technical terms, and words or phrases with multiple meanings

R 5.3 Initial Understanding

  • I can list elements from the text believed to be the key elements for understanding.
  • I can identify a main idea, key facts, and some supportive details (informational text) and a main event, themes, literary devices, or character development (literary text)
  • I can identify, describe, and/or summarize the main ideas, key facts, and supportive details (informational text) and the  main events, themes, literary devices, and character development (literary text)
  • I can create cogent summaries that demonstrate a nuanced understanding of the text utilizing the main ideas, key facts, supportive details (informational text) and main events, themes, literary devices, and character development (literary text)

R 5.4 Analysis and Interpretation

  • I can recognize inferences and textual interpretations
  • I can make inferences and textual interpretations with adequate textual evidence
  • I can make inferences and textual interpretations using strong textual evidence.
  • I can analyze the author’s logic, perspective, and biases and how the author builds meaning.
  • I can create and support precise claims that address complex concepts in the text.
  • I can conduct research in order to deepen the investigation using analysis regarding the author’s logic, perspective, and biases and how the author builds meaning.  


TS 6 - Writing (W): An FNESU graduate writes using standard English for a variety of purposes and audiences.


1 - Beginning

2 - Developing

3 - Proficient

4 - Exemplary

W 6.1 Purpose

  • I am aware of audience and purpose when writing
  • I can provide a general purpose for a specific task and audience in writing
  • I can produce writing with a purpose that is appropriate for the audience and is clear, credible, and/or arguable
  • I can produce clear and compelling writing for a specific purpose and audience that engages the reader’s full attention

W 6.2 Organization

  • I am aware of organizational structure in writing
  • I can produce writing with elements of organizational structure
  • I can produce writing with a clear organizational structure, main ideas, and transitions that promote clarity
  • I can produce writing where the organizational structure advances the purpose of the main ideas, connects the parts to the whole, and improves the flow of ideas through effective transitions

W 6.3 Evidence

  • I am aware that evidence is needed to support claims and counterclaims
  • I can provide evidence to support claims and counterclaims
  • I can provide sufficient, relevant evidence based on valid reasoning to support claims and counterclaims in writing
  • I can provide compelling, relevant evidence, based on valid reasoning to support claims and counterclaims in writing with evidence from multiple sources when appropriate

W 6.4 Analysis

  • I am aware that claims are based on opinion or generalities
  • I can list evidence or support competing purposes
  • I can use analysis in writing to connect the details and evidence to the purpose logically
  • I can use analysis in writing to identify and discuss key elements, causes, factors, and techniques to construct meaning.
  • I can use analysis in writing to examine perspective and the validity of claims

W 6.5 Voice & Tone

  • I am aware that voice and tone are important elements that can be developed by all writers
  • I can use word choice, sentence structure, and style to adapt writing to an intended audience or purpose
  • I can demonstrate a voice in writing that is consistent and authentic.
  • I can maintain an appropriate tone for intended audience(s) and supports purpose
  • I can demonstrate the development of a voice in writing that is original and compelling.
  • I can control the tone of writing to connect with the intended audience and to enhance the purpose

W 6.6 Conventions

  • I am aware of how grammar, usage, and mechanics can improve the effectiveness of writing
  • I can use grammar, usage, and mechanics to improve the quality of writing
  • I can write with control of grammar, usage, and mechanics to support my purpose and clarity.
  • I can avoid errors that distract the reader, and follows accepted conventions for citations
  • I can write with sustained precision and control of grammar, usage, and mechanics to enhance overall writing

Resources and References


Great Schools Partnership: This group is a non-profit group dedicated to helping schools in the redesign process. They are located in Maine and were hired by the state of Vermont to provide significant professional development to school districts during the 2014-2015 school year. Their website is filled with high quality research and resources regarding proficiency-based learning. FNESU explicitly follows their Creative Commons copyright expectation which reads:

All the resources on this site have been published under a Creative Commons license, which lets schools remix, tweak, and build upon our work non-commercially, as long as they credit us and license their new creations under the identical terms. While we retain the original copyright on the work, you can republish or repurpose anything on this site as long as you (1) credit the Great Schools Partnership as the source of the work; (2) do not sell or use the work commercially in any way; and (3) republish all work, including derivative or modified work, under an identical Creative Commons license so that others can also republish and built upon the work. (From the Great Schools Partnership Website on 8/5/2016)

Vermont Agency of Education: This work is built upon the new Educational Quality Standards (EQS) and ACT 77. Vermont’s Agency of Education has provided a number of explanations and resources for schools and communities to access.


Berger, R., Rugen, L., & Woodfin, L. (2013). Leaders of their own learning: Transforming schools through student-engaged assessment.

Brookhart, S. M. (2011). Grading and learning: Practices that support student achievement. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Guskey, T. R. (2009). On your mark: Challenging the conventions of grading and reporting.

Guskey, T. R. (2009). Practical solutions for serious problems in standards-based grading. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Guskey, T. R., & Bailey, J. M. (2010). Developing standards-based report cards. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Guskey, T. R., & Jung, L. A. (2013). Answers to essential questions about standards, assessments, grading, and reporting. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: Routledge.

Marzano, R. J. (2007). The art and science of teaching: A comprehensive framework for effective instruction.

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D., & McTighe, J. (2006). Assessing student outcomes: Performance assessment using the dimensions of learning model.

McTighe, J., & Wiggins, G. P. (2013). Essential questions: Opening doors to student understanding.

Wiggins, G. P., & McTighe, J. (2006). Understanding by design. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall International.

Special thanks to Mike McRaith, principal at Montpelier High School and Mike Martin, curriculum director at South Burlington High School for providing consultation and resources to FNESU in order to help us develop this framework and guide.